Monday, 20 February 2012

Make a living with Hydrology

Hydrologists examine the physical characteristics, distribution, and circulation of water above and below the earth's surface. They study rainfall and other precipitation, the paths precipitation takes through the soil and rocks underground, and its return to the oceans and air. The government and private industry use this information about water properties and movement patterns for a variety of purposes.

To make it as an Hydrologist, one should be able to do the following:

Apply research findings to help minimize the environmental impacts of pollution, water-borne diseases, erosion, and sedimentation.

Compile and evaluate hydrologic information in order to prepare navigational charts and maps, and to predict atmospheric conditions.

Conduct research and communicate information to promote the conservation and preservation of water resources.

Conduct short-term and long-term climate assessments, and study storm occurrences.

Design and conduct scientific hydrogeological investigations to ensure that accurate and appropriate information is available for use in water resource management decisions.

Evaluate research data in terms of its impact on issues such as soil and water conservation, flood control planning, and water supply forecasting.

Investigate properties, origins, and activities of glaciers, ice, snow, and permafrost.

Measure and graph phenomena such as lake levels, stream flows, and changes in water volumes.

Study and analyze the physical aspects of the Earth in terms of the hydrological components, including atmosphere, hydrosphere, and interior structure.

Study and document quantities, distribution, disposition, and development of underground and surface waters.

Study public water supply issues, including flood and drought risks, water quality, wastewater, and impacts on wetland habitats.

Answer questions and provide technical assistance and information to contractors and/or the public regarding issues such as well drilling, code requirements, hydrology, and geology.

Collect and analyze water samples as part of field investigations and/or to validate data from automatic monitors.

Coordinate and supervise the work of professional and technical staff, including research assistants, technologists, and technicians.

Design civil works associated with hydrographic activities, and supervise their construction, installation, and maintenance.

Develop or modify methods of conducting hydrologic studies.

Draft final reports describing research results, including illustrations, appendices, maps, and other attachments.

Evaluate data and provide recommendations regarding the feasibility of municipal projects such as hydroelectric power plants, irrigation systems, flood warning systems and waste treatment facilities.

Install, maintain, and calibrate instruments such as those that monitor water levels, rainfall, and sediments.

Investigate complaints or conflicts related to the alteration of public waters, gathering information, recommending alternatives, informing participants of progress, and preparing draft orders.

Prepare hydrogeologic evaluations of known or suspected hazardous waste sites and land treatment and feedlot facilities.

Administer programs designed to ensure the proper sealing of abandoned wells.

Monitor the work of well contractors, exploratory borers, and engineers, in order to enforce rules regarding their activities.

Review applications for site plans and permits, and recommend approval, denial, modification, or further investigative action.


The minimum educational requirement to become a hydrogeologist is a bachelor's degree in hydrogeology or a major that deals with hydrology, plus additional coursework in geology or soil science. Courses should also include math up through calculus, as well as physics and chemistry. Many professional hydrogeologists earn master's degrees or even doctorate degrees.

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Environmental Engineering

For decades industry as well as individuals have taken advantage of the world’s natural resources. All sorts of products and services that have enhanced human living conditions are created at the expense of natural resources. Some companies have been reckless in their approach to the environment in order to reap the financial rewards offered by the seemingly endless supply of certain natural resources. Forests around the globe have been devastated, and ocean pollution due to industry and individual waste is destroying the nature balance in the sea world. Environmental engineers use the principles of biology and chemistry to develop solutions for these environmental issues as well as other hazardous global behavior.

Environmental Engineers responsibilities

Collaborate with environmental scientists, planners, hazardous waste technicians, engineers, and other specialists, and experts in law and business to address environmental problems.

Obtain, update, and maintain plans, permits, and standard operating procedures.

Provide technical-level support for environmental remediation and litigation projects, including remediation system design and determination of regulatory applicability.

Inspect industrial and municipal facilities and programs in order to evaluate operational effectiveness and ensure compliance with environmental regulations.

Provide administrative support for projects by collecting data, providing project documentation, training staff, and performing other general administrative duties.

Develop proposed project objectives and targets, and report to management on progress in attaining them.

Advise corporations and government agencies of procedures to follow in cleaning up contaminated sites in order to protect people and the environment.

Advise industries and government agencies about environmental policies and standards.

Inform company employees and other interested parties of environmental issues.

Assess the existing or potential environmental impact of land use projects on air, water, and land.

Assist in budget implementation, forecasts, and administration.

Develop site-specific health and safety protocols, such as spill contingency plans and methods for loading and transporting waste.

Coordinate and manage environmental protection programs and projects, assigning and evaluating work.

Serve as liaison with federal, state, and local agencies and officials on issues pertaining to solid and hazardous waste program requirements.

Design systems, processes, and equipment for control, management, and remediation of water, air, and soil quality.

Prepare hazardous waste manifests and land disposal restriction notifications.

Serve on teams conducting multimedia inspections at complex facilities, providing assistance with planning, quality assurance, safety inspection protocols, and sampling.

Develop and present environmental compliance training or orientation sessions.

Maintain, write, and revise quality-assurance documentation and procedures.

Develop, implement, and manage plans and programs related to conservation and management of natural resources.

Assess, sort, characterize, and pack known and unknown materials.

Request bids from suppliers or consultants.

Provide environmental engineering assistance in network analysis, regulatory analysis, and planning or reviewing database development.

Training and education requirements

A degree in environmental or environmental health as well as knowledge and experience in preventing and managing environmental issues are the educational requirements that most companies look for when they hire environmental engineers. A master’s degree in engineering is usually required by companies that specialize in hazardous-waste management and removal. Political factors play a role in the training as well as the employment of environmental engineers. Loose regulations reduce the number of engineering jobs available in private companies, but stronger regulations increase the number of environmental engineering jobs in government and the private sector.

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Sunday, 19 February 2012

Construction Supervisor

A civil construction supervisor is an important position found at many infrastructural projects. A civil construction supervisor is the day-to-day recorder and analyzer for infrastructure projects. As the name suggests, they are employed for civil construction projects, or projects that municipalities, states, or federal governments set up. Because of this, most civil construction supervisors have expertise in civil engineering, building codes, transportation science or other crafts associated with public infrastructure.
Superb work from a good

Some of the representative duties
Supervise preparation of plans, specifications, schedules, and cost estimates for new construction, modernization, and relocatable buildings; assist in organizing services necessary for construction.

Coordinate and attend meetings between district staff and outside consultants during the design process; work closely with and act as district liaison to consultants in the preparation of design and construction documents for projects.

Administer contracts; evaluate schedules; monitor progress of the contractors on projects; ensure that project deadlines are met. Supervise support technician or other assigned personnel, and to act as District liaison for labor compliance issues related to construction.

Research and assist in procurement of data for the preparation of district standards for buildings, systems, equipment and landscape. Review designs and working drawings for compliance with district standards to assure they are appropriate and complete.

Supervise the preparation of plans for the correction and removal of fire, life-safety and access compliance deficiencies in existing facilities which have been identified by fire and other code enforcement officers. Assist in the development of planning guides and scoping documents; assist in expediting projects through the Division of the State Architect and required local regulatory review.

To be a good Supervisor, one should

  • Maintain accurate records during each construction job. This includes recording all material, equipment and labor costs. It also includes keeping records of each phase of the construction process in case a lawsuit or other discrepancy occurs later on.
  • Communicate effectively with all workers and treat them with respect. For a construction job to run smoothly and minimize setbacks, it's important the construction supervisor keeps communication flowing.
  • Resolve conflicts as they occur. An additional characteristic of a good construction supervisor is minimizing conflicts. Therefore, you should handle conflicts between workers professionally and and fairly as possible.
  • Practice essential safety guidelines. One important task is keeping all workers safe and injury-free. As a result, the supervisor must mandate that workers wear proper safety equipment such as boots, a hard hat, goggles or any other necessary items. In addition, keep each job site clean and free from potential hazards like obstacles that could trip a worker
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Saturday, 18 February 2012

What is a land Surveyor?

Land surveyors determine and verify boundaries of property, create maps and plan the development of land. They work for government agencies, construction companies, architectural and engineering firms and utility services. There also are many surveying companies which provide contract services to these organizations.

Duties to be adhered to

Surveyors travel to work sites and then, using specialized equipment, they measure and record any land features such as contour, location and elevation.

Another duty of land surveyors is determining property boundaries when definitive legal documentation is not available. They use precise mapping tools, knowledge of laws, rules of evidence and local standards of practice.

Serves as responsible surveyor in charge over complex assignments in a survey
program under the direction of a managerial level supervisor or above. Also makes topographical surveys and site surveys for the development and/or clean up of contaminated recreational facilities, and the design of buildings, roads, and bridges.

Makes topographical surveys and site surveys for the development and/or clean up of
contaminated recreational facilities, and the design of buildings, roads, and bridges. Maintains records and prepares reports appropriate to the classification and other nonessential
functions as required.

To become a successful Land Surveyor, one should have the

-Ability to communicate effectively with others.
-Ability to use surveying instruments.
-Ability to reduce and plot field notes to make computations required.
-Ability to make engineering sketches, maps and drawings.
-Ability to read and interpret engineering plans and specifications.
-Ability to maintain favorable public relations.
-Ability to maintain records, and prepare reports and correspondence related to the work.

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Quantity Surveying

Construction projects can be incredibly expensive and construction managers and clients often want to keep costs as low as possible. This is often accomplished by hiring a quantity surveyor, a specialist who oversees the quantity of materials and workers found at the construction site, with the effort of minimizing the amount of materials used.

Some of the responsibilities undertaken

The quantity surveyor manages the contracts for the client. These contracts can be between the client and architect. The quantity surveyor keeps track of all current building contracts, along with the costs associated with each until the contract becomes fulfilled. Providing contract advice to the client is another job responsibility of the quantity surveyor.

As a major construction project begins, the quantity surveyor researches all health and safety regulations regarding local and state policies to inform the project construction owners. It is crucial that none of these health and safety regulations is violated during the construction phase. The quantity surveyor will meet with construction supervisors to discuss proper ways to disperse trash. The surveyor will also discuss ways to level off sections of the site's landscape so all safety regulations are met.

When the construction of engineering project requires maintenance or repair work, the quantity surveyor performs cost analysis to determine the best price at the best quality. The quantity surveyor evaluates all the commercial risks and develops the appropriate response to address any unforeseen issues. He also evaluates the costs associated with contracting services.

By handling the allocated work to subcontractors, the quantity surveyor evaluates the progress and outcomes of the construction project. This allows the quantity surveyor to create detailed progress reports for the client. The quantity surveyor also manages the amount of work between subcontractors who handle the electrical, plumbing and structural design to ensure all workers follow safety and health regulations
A more specialized job duty of the quantity surveyor involves giving advice to the client. This advice involves property taxation, building maintenance costs and facilities management. Other topics that the quantity surveyor gives his expert opinion on include the client having a procurement strategy for materials and finding other resources to fund projects.

Educational background requirement and skills

Quantity surveyors usually need a bachelor's degree in quantity surveying, construction or civil engineering. They must have the ability to understand construction plans. Quantity surveyors must have excellent communication skills in order to communicate both with the workers, contractors and with clients. They must also be able to use cost estimation software. Surveyors must have the ability to listen and fully understand the expectations of the clients. They must also have planning, time management, prioritization, multi-tasking and documentation skills

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Friday, 17 February 2012

I want to be a Geologist, don"t you?

Geologists study the Earth and the Earth's history. It is a fascinating profession that can combine chemistry, physics and biology to put together the story of how the Earth came to be the way it is . They also study the composition of the Earth and its physical characteristics.

Some of the responsibilities of qualified Geologists

  • Communicate geological findings by writing research papers, participating in conferences, and/or teaching geological science at universities.
  • Measure characteristics of the Earth, such as gravity and magnetic fields, using equipment such as seismographs, gravimeters, torsion balances, and magnetometers.
  • Develops multidimensional cross-sections and isopach and contour maps to interpret subsurface conditions for a variety of site evaluations.
  • Advise construction firms and government agencies on dam and road construction, foundation design, and land use and resource management.
  • Test industrial diamonds and abrasives, soil, or rocks in order to determine their geological characteristics, using optical, x-ray, heat, acid, and precision instruments.
  • Identify deposits of construction materials, and assess the materials' characteristics and suitability for use as concrete aggregates, road fill, or in other applications.
  • Analyze and interpret geological, geochemical, and geophysical information from sources such as survey data, well logs, boreholes, and aerial photos.
  • Plan and conduct geological, geochemical, and geophysical field studies and surveys; sample collection; and drilling and testing programs used to collect data for research and/or application.
  • Investigate the composition, structure, and history of the Earth's crust through the collection, examination, measurement, and classification of soils, minerals, rocks, and fossil remains.
  • Locate and estimate probable natural gas, oil, and mineral ore deposits and underground water resources, using aerial photographs, charts, and research and survey results.
  • Assess ground and surface water movement in order to provide advice regarding issues such as waste management, route and site selection, and the restoration of contaminated sites.
  • Conduct geological and geophysical studies to provide information for use in regional development, site selection, and the development of public works projects.

Where can i work?

    Most work in private industries, like in the field of petroleum, where they study data gathered from holes bored deep inside the earth and sonic data to try and determine the  where petroleum deposits might be found.

    They can also be in fields gathering data and finally analyzing that data for their final recommendations on a given matter

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    How to make it as a Structural Engineer

    Structural engineers design structures to withstand such pressures as weather and human use. They ensure buildings and other structures don’t bend, twist, collapse or vibrate.
    Structural engineers design most structures including houses, theatres, sports venues, hospitals, office blocks, bridges, oil rigs, space satellites, ships and aircraft. They work in close partnership with architects.Structural engineers have to choose appropriate materials such as bricks, concrete, wood and metal to meet design specifications. When construction has begun, they are often involved in inspecting the work and advising contractors.They also examine buildings and other structures to test if they are structurally sound.

    Typical work activities they are involved in include the following

    Structural engineers ensure structures are sound enough to withstand pressures while also making efficient use of funds and materials in order to achieve these structural goals.
    Typical activities include:
    • analysing configurations of the basic structural components of a building or other structure;
    • calculating the pressures, stresses and strains that each component, such as a beam or lintel, will experience from other parts of the structure due to human use or environmental pressures such as weather or earthquakes;
    • considering the strength of various materials, e.g. timber, concrete, steel and brick, to see how their inclusion may necessitate a change of structural design;
    • liaising with other designers, including architects, to agree on safe designs and their fit with the aesthetic concept of the construction;
    • examining structures at risk of collapse and advising how to improve their structural integrity, such as recommending removal or repair of defective parts or rebuilding the entire structure;
    • making drawings, specifications and computer models of structures for building contractors;
    • investigating ground conditions and analysing results of site tests, such as soil samples;
    • liaising with construction contractors to ensure that newly erected buildings are structurally sound;
    • applying expert knowledge of the forces that act on various structures;
    • using computers and computer-aided design (CAD) technology for simulation purposes.

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      Thursday, 16 February 2012

      A Geotechnical Engineer

      Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials.It is important in civil engineering, but is also used by military, petroleum, mining or any other engineering concerned with construction on or in the ground.A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a review of project needs to define the required material properties. Then follows a site investigation of soil, rock, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest to determine their engineering properties including how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction.

      To finally be called a qualified Geotechnical Engineer, one should have at least  a bachelor's degree in civil engineering for this occupation. 

      Duties encountered basically include the following

      • Geotechnical engineers are usually employed within the area of civil engineering, and they help with the construction of dams, landfills, embankments and tunnels. 
      • Geotechnical engineers specialize in soil evaluation to determine the suitability of a particular area for the purpose of construction
      • Surveying areas for sinkholes or earthquakes, creating computer-generated models, analyzing slope stability and engaging in lab work are some of the tasks that geotechnical engineers perform during a typical work day.
      • He is responsible for guiding the staff members, for any particular project.
      Instruments such as inclinometers, piezometers and settlement monitoring devices are some of the tools that geotechnical engineers work with to perform their engineering duties. 
      Geotechnical engineers are given the task of inspecting drills before they begin to explore a particular work site to test soil quality. They also are responsible for setting up instruments for the purpose of collecting soil samples. Engineers must be computer literate and have these skills to aid them in their job. For instance, a geotechnical engineer can design models that show the direction of storm water runoff within an area and how an environment will change once a construction project is complete using specialized software.

      Where can i work?

      Geotechnical engineers work with government, commercial, industrial and private organizations and developers to assist with projects such as highways, bridges, dams, tunnels, tanks, public infrastructure improvement, manufacturing facilities and commercial and residential development. 
      Geotechnical engineers aid senior engineers with the development of reports and laboratory data that informs clients about the suitability of a building site. They inform senior management and clients about development costs and make them aware of any potential problems that might occur during the construction process.

      Duties to be expected as a Civil Engineer

      As a civil engineer, you will plan, design and manage construction projects. These can range from the relatively small-scale, for example bridge repairs, through to large national schemes, like the building of the new Olympic stadium: So an individual should be able to perform the following tasks:

      •  Analyze survey reports, maps, drawings, blueprints, aerial photography, and other topographical or geologic data to plan projects.
      • Plan and design transportation or hydraulic systems and structures, following construction and government standards, using design software and drawing tools.
      • Compute load and grade requirements, water flow rates, and material stress factors to determine design specifications.
      • Inspect project sites to monitor progress and ensure conformance to design specifications and safety or sanitation standards.
      • Direct construction, operations, and maintenance activities at project site.
      • Direct or participate in surveying to lay out installations and establish reference points, grades, and elevations to guide construction.
      • Estimate quantities and cost of materials, equipment, or labor to determine project feasibility.
      • Prepare or present public reports, such as bid proposals, deeds, environmental impact statements, and property and right-of-way descriptions.
      • Test soils and materials to determine the adequacy and strength of foundations, concrete, asphalt, or steel.
      • Provide technical advice regarding design, construction, or program modifications and structural repairs to industrial and managerial personnel.
      • Conduct studies of traffic patterns or environmental conditions to identify engineering problems and assess the potential impact of projects.
      Having being able to perform the above listed duties, you could be employed in any sector from structural, transportation, environmental to maritime and geotechnical.

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      Saturday, 11 February 2012

      Why Civil Engineering is the best option?

      It involves a broad combination of all the sub-disciplines within engineering, and Civil Engineers frequently work on complex projects which involve a lot of technical, economic, social and environmental factors. Therefore an individual as an engineer, can be responsible for the design and construction of enormous projects that involves mostly disturbing of the ground surface during the construction of the following:

      • Roads and bridges
      • Large buildings (sky scrapers, malls, etc)
      • Landfills
      • Dams, etc
      The best part of it is that it is composed of almost enjoyable subjects in the history of education, that is, every one can enjoy the following topics:
      1. Math
      2. Physics
      3. Hydraulics
      4. Chemistry and many others.
      If one majors in Civil Engineering, he will probably choose from one of many different specialties in the field including transportation, structures, materials, hydrosystems, geotechnical, environmental, and construction. When you graduate, you shouldn't have a problem getting a job as the demand for Civil Engineers seems to increase every single day!!

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